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Clinical Report Proofs on the Discoveries about Diabetes and Other Diseases

anxiety It is important to consider the impact of diabetes on quality of life as well as the development of mental health problems related to diabetes distress, fear of hypoglycemia (and hyperglycemia), symptoms of anxiety, disordered eating behaviors as well as eating disorders, and symptoms of depression. Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2016 [1]
cataract Glaucoma, cataract, and other disorders of the eye occur earlier and more frequently in people with diabetes.
cystic disease Cystic fibrosis–related diabetes (CFRD) is the most common comorbidity in people with cystic fibrosis, occurring in about 20% of adolescents and 40-50% of adults.
depression Depression affects 20-25% of people with diabetes.
myocardial infarction Individuals with both diabetes and major depressive disorder have a twofold increased risk for new onset myocardial infarction compared with either disease state alone.
retinopathy Diabetic retinopathy is a highly specific vascular complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
stroke Older individuals with diabetes have higher rates of premature death, functional disability, and coexisting illnesses, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and stroke, than those without diabetes.
hepatitis Compared with the general population, people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes have higher rates of hepatitis B.
inflammation Genetically determined β-cell function and insulin resistance associated with infection and inflammation may also contribute to the development of CFRD.
heart disease Almost 50% of patients with type 2 diabetes will develop heart failure.
liver disease In a prospective analysis, diabetes was significantly associated with incident nonalcoholic chronic liver disease and with hepatocellular carcinoma.
lung disease Diabetes in this population (CFRD), compared with individuals with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, is associated with worse nutritional status, more severe inflammatory lung disease, and greater mortality.
schizophrenia Severe mental disorder that includes schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression is increased 1.7-fold in people with diabetes.
skin ulcer Foot ulcers and amputation, which are consequences of diabetic neuropathy and/or peripheral arterial disease (PAD), are common and represent major causes of morbidity and mortality in people with diabetes.
testosterone Mean levels of testosterone are lower in men with diabetes compared with age matched men without diabetes, but obesity is a major confounder.
pancreatitis Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common complication of chronic pancreatitis (CP) and increases the mortality. Risk Factors for Diabetes Mellitus in Chronic Pancreatitis: A Cohort of 2011 Patients [2]
periodontitis Periodontitis is more common in diabetics, and occurs with increased severity when the diabetes is uncontrolled. Diabetes and Periodontitis: A medical perspective [3]
respiratory disease Diabetes in this population is associated with worse nutritional status, more severe inflammatory lung disease, and greater mortality from respiratory failure. Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes – 2014 [4]
tuberculosis Diabetes is a known risk factor for tuberculosis and is associated with poorer tuberculosis outcomes, while tuberculosis is associated with worsening glycaemic control. Global Report on Diabetes [5]
tumor Laboratory and clinical evidence suggest that diabetes caused by pancreatic cancer is due to cytokines produced by the tumor rather than secondary to endocrine pancreatic tissue invasion and damage. Diabetes and cancer [6]


[1] American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes-2016. Diabetes care, 2016; 39(1): S1-S112.
[2] Pan J, Xin L, Wang D, et al. Risk factors for diabetes mellitus in chronic pancreatitis: a cohort of 2011 patients [J]. Medicine, 2016, 95(14).
[3] Sharma M, Jindal R, Siddiqui M A, et al. Diabetes and Periodontitis: A medical perspective [J]. Journal of the International Clinical Dental Research Organization, 2016, 8(1): 3.
[4] American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes—2014 [J]. Diabetes care, 2014, 37(Supplement 1): S14-S80.
[5] World Health Organization. Global report on diabetes [M]. World Health Organization, 2016.
[6] Vigneri P, Frasca F, Sciacca L, et al. Diabetes and cancer [J]. Endocrine-related cancer, 2009, 16(4): 1103-1123.